Factors Affecting Maize Production in Kiteto District, Manyara Region, Tanzania: Cross Sectional Design





Agribusiness, Agriculture, Climate Change, Livelihood, Poverty


Maize is one of the most important food crops globally; however, its production in most of the developing countries has been facing several challenges that also affect the livelihood of the large number of smallholder farmers who highly depend on the crop for food and income. Therefore, to deepen understanding of the same, the current study explores factors affecting maize production in Kiteto district, Manyara, Tanzania. This study employed a cross-sectional research design to gather primary data from a randomly selected sample of 100 individuals. The data was analysed using the multiple linear regression technique. The findings revealed that farm size (0.0083, p<0.01), access to irrigation (0.0878, p<0.01), and access to improved seeds (0.0582, p<0.01)  had a significant statistical influence on the level of maize production. Furthermore, regarding the challenges, the results were analysed through the utilisation of measures such as the mean, frequencies, and percentages.  Furthermore, the study found that shortage of rainfall, maize price fluctuation, diseases, and pests were the main challenges facing maize farmers in the study area. The study findings recommend that in order to improve maize production, there is a need to increase accessibility to irrigation facilities, improved seeds, fertiliser, and modern farming techniques among smallholder maize farmers, and this may be done by the government in collaboration with the private sector.


Abdulai, S., Nkegbe, P. K., & Donkor, S. A. (2017). Assessing the economic efficiency of maize production in Northern Ghana. Ghana Journal of Development Studies, 14(1), 123-145. https://doi.org/10.4314/gjds.v14i1.7 DOI: https://doi.org/10.4314/gjds.v14i1.7

Abebe, A., & Halala, H. (2020). Factors Affect Maize Production and Marketing in Wolaita and Dawuro Zones, SNNPR State, Ethiopia. International Journal of Science and Research, 9(2), 771-783.

Ashenafi, M., Zewdu, B., Selassie, Y. G., & Getachew, A. (2022). Socioeconomic determinants of maize production among north western Ethiopia's small-scale farmers: Evidence from three agro-ecology zones. African Journal of Food, Agriculture, Nutrition and Development, 22(115), 21863-21889. https://doi.org/10.18697/ajfand.115.22420 DOI: https://doi.org/10.18697/ajfand.115.22420

Baijukya, F. Sabula L. Mruma S. Mzee, F. Mtoka, E. Masigo, J. Ndunguru, A., & Swai, E. (2020). Maize production manual for smallholder farmers in Tanzania. Ibadan, Nigeria: International Institute of Tropical Agriculture (IITA).

Boucoyannis, D. (2013). The equalizing hand: Why Adam Smith thought the market should produce wealth without steep inequality. Perspectives on Politics, 11(4), 1051-1070. https://doi.org/10.1017/S153759271300282X DOI: https://doi.org/10.1017/S153759271300282X

Collins, J. (2017). The Wealth of Nations. CRC Press.

Dhakal, S., Sah, S. K., Amgain, L. P., & Dhakal, K. H. (2022). Maize Cultivation: Present Status, Major Constraints and Farmer's Perception at Madichaur, Rolpa. Journal of Agriculture and Foresty University, 5, 125-131. https://doi.org/10.3126/jafu.v5i1.48454 DOI: https://doi.org/10.3126/jafu.v5i1.48454

Dimoso, R.L., & Andrew, F. (2021). Rural Electrification and Small and Medium Enterprises' (SMEs) performances in Mvomero District, Morogoro, Tanzania. Journal of Business School, 4 (1), 48-69. https://doi.org/10.26677/TR1010.2021.717 DOI: https://doi.org/10.26677/TR1010.2021.717

Epule, T. E., Chehbouni, A., & Dhiba, D. (2022). Recent patterns in maize yield and harvest area across Africa. Agronomy, 12(2), 374. https://doi.org/10.3390/agronomy12020374 DOI: https://doi.org/10.3390/agronomy12020374

Eticha, A. B. (2020). Contributing factors of maize production using multiple linear regressions in mizan- aman district , bench-shako zone , Southwest of Ethiopia. Open Journal of Plant Science, 5, 40-45.

FAO. (2015). Transforming our world: the 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development. United Nations - Sustainable Development Knowledge Platform.

FAOSTAT. (2019). Food and Agriculture Organization Statistics Data 2019. FAOSTAT.

FAOSTAT. (2021). Crops Statistics - Concepts, Definitions and Classifications. FAO Statistics Division (ESS), Rome.

Foss, N. J. (1997). The classical theory of production and the capabilities view of the firm. Journal of Economic Studies, 24(5), 307-323. https://doi.org/10.1108/01443589710175825 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1108/01443589710175825

Fumbwe, F., Lihawa, R., Andrew, F., Kinyanjui, G., & Mkuna, E. (2021). Examination on level of scale efficiency in public hospitals in Tanzania. Cost Eff Resour Alloc., 19 (1) 49. https://doi.org/10.1186/s12962-021-00305-4 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1186/s12962-021-00305-4

Gaspard, N., Claude, T. J., Ritha, T., Claude, I. J., Mburu, D. M., Noel, M. J. C., & Mbabazize, M. (2021). Analysis of the Factors Influencing Maize Postharvest Losses and Effect of Agricultural Inputs Supply on Productivity in Rwanda: A Case of Gatsibo and Nyagatare. American Journal of Management Science and Engineering, 6(6), 203-212. https://doi.org/10.11648/j.ajmse.20210606.14 DOI: https://doi.org/10.11648/j.ajmse.20210606.14

Gracian, J. I. (2019) Assessing Factors Affecting the Production of Maize for Smallholder Farmers in Mutasa District. Zimbabwe, African University Press.

Huma, B., Hussain, M., Ning, C., & Yuesuo, Y. (2019). Human Benefits from Maize. Sch J Appl Sci Res 2(2), 04-07

Kitole, F. A., & Utouh, H. M. (2023). Foreign direct investment and industrialization in Tanzania admixture time series forecast analysis 1960-2020. Applied Economics Letters, 1-8. https://doi.org/10.1080/13504851.2023.2211324 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1080/13504851.2023.2211324

Kitole, F.A. (2023). Economics of Agricultural Development: World Food Systems and Resource Use. Agrekon, 62(2), 194-196. https://doi.org/10.1080/03031853.2023.2181831 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1080/03031853.2023.2181831

Kitole, F.A., & Sesabo, J.K. (2024). The Heterogeneity of Socioeconomic Factors Affecting Poverty Reduction in Tanzania: A Multidimensional Statistical Inquiry. Soc (2024). https://doi.org/10.1007/s12115-024-00957-x DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/s12115-024-00957-x

Kitole, F.A., Lihawa, R.M., & Nsindagi, T.E. (2023). Agriculture Productivity and Farmers' Health in Tanzania: Analysis on Maize Subsector. Glob Soc Welf., 10, 197-206 (2023). https://doi.org/10.1007/s40609-022-00243-w DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/s40609-022-00243-w

Kitole, F., Lihawa, R., Sesabo, J., & Shitima, C. (2023). The dynamism of communication technology adoption, market information and welfare: Evidence from Nile perch (Lates niloticus) fish market, Mwanza, Tanzania. Lakes & Reservoirs: Research & Management, 28, e12433. https://doi.org/10.1111/lre.12433 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1111/lre.12433

Lee, C. C., & He, Z. W. (2022). Natural resources and green economic growth: an analysis based on heterogeneous growth paths. Resources Policy, 79, 103006. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.resourpol.2022.103006 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.resourpol.2022.103006

Lewis, W. A. (1988). The roots of development theory. Handbook of development economics, 1, 27-37. https://doi.org/10.1016/S1573-4471(88)01005-8 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/S1573-4471(88)01005-8

Lobulu, J., Shimelis, H., Laing, M., & Angelo, A. (2019). Maize production constraints, traits preference and current Striga control options in western Tanzania: farmers' consultation and implications for breeding. Acta Agriculturae Scandinavica, Section B - Soil & Plant Science, 69(8), 734-746. https://doi.org/10.1080/09064710.2019.1652680 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1080/09064710.2019.1652680

Mohammed, M. (2021). Empirical Analysis of the Factors that Affecting Maize Production of Farmers among Smallholders : The Case of Eastern Oromia , Ethiopia. Turkish Journal of Agriculture-Food Science and Technology, 9(1), 137-145. https://doi.org/10.24925/turjaf.v9i1.137-145.3769 DOI: https://doi.org/10.24925/turjaf.v9i1.137-145.3769

Ngonkeu, E. L., Tandzi, L. ., Dickmi, C. ., Nartey, E., Yeboah, M., & Ngeve, J. (2017). Identification of Farmer ' s Constraints to Maize Production in the Humid Forest Zone of Cameroon. Journal of Experimental Agriculture International, 15(3), 1-9. https://doi.org/10.9734/JEAI/2017/31206 DOI: https://doi.org/10.9734/JEAI/2017/31206

Njogu, C. (2019). Factors affecting maize production among registered small scale farmers in Trans-Nzoia, Kenya (Thesis, Strathmore University). Retrieved from http://suplus.strathmore.edu/handle/11071/6674

Ntabakirabose, G., Tumukunde, R., Tuyisenge, J. C., Musabyimana, Musabyimana, J. C., Mburu, D. M., Murindangabo, Y. T., Ndaruhutse, F., Senyanzobe, J. M.V. (2021). An Economic Analysis of the Impact of Contract Farming of Broccoli Production on Youth Development: A Case of Musanze District. Innovation, 2(4), 56-66.

Ogujiuba, K. K., Agholor, I., & Mabila, L. (2021). Socio-Economic Factors Affecting Small- Scale Maize Producing Farmers in Kamhlushwa , South Africa. journal of Critical Reviews, 8(02), 1811-1820.

Ombuki, C. (2018). Factors Influencing Maize Production in Rural Kenya: Case of Kisii County. International Journal of Arts and Commerce, 7(6), 47-56.

Romy, S. (2020). The Drivers of Maize Area Expansion in Sub-Saharan Africa. How Policies to Boost Maize Production Overlook the Interests of Smallholder Farmers, 9(3), 1-13. https://doi.org/10.3390/land9030068 DOI: https://doi.org/10.3390/land9030068

Smith, A. (2005). The Wealth of Nations, Vol. 1 (Glasgow Edition of Works, Vol. 2)(1776).

Smith, A. (2010). The Wealth of Nations: An inquiry into the nature and causes of the Wealth of Nations. Harriman House Limited.

Theodory, T.F., & Kitole, F.A. (2024). Does rural water resource outcry elevate communities' conservation for livelihoods in a pooled resource? A case of Mvomero district, Morogoro region, Tanzania. Sustain. Water Resour. Manag., 10, 81. https://doi.org/10.1007/s40899-024-01070-x DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/s40899-024-01070-x

Tuki, K. B. (2020). Factors Affecting Smallholder Farmers Maize Production and Market Participation: In Case of Dedo District, Oromia Regional State, Ethiopia (Thesis, Jimma University)

Urassa, J. K. (2015). Factors influencing maize crop production at household levels: A case of Rukwa Region in the Southern Highlands of Tanzania. African Journal of Agricultural Research, 10(10), 1097-1106. https://doi.org/10.5897/AJAR2014.9262 DOI: https://doi.org/10.5897/AJAR2014.9262

Utonga, D. (2022). Determinants of Maize Yields among Small-Scale Farmers in Mbinga District , Tanzania. Asian Journal of Economics, Business and Accounting, 22(7), 49-58. https://doi.org/10.9734/ajeba/2022/v22i730578 DOI: https://doi.org/10.9734/ajeba/2022/v22i730578

Utouh, H. (2024). The impact of trade liberalization on the performance of Tanzania's export sector - a time series analysis from 1980 to 2019. Acta Scientiarum Polonorum. Oeconomia, 23(1), 25-42. https://doi.org/10.22630/ASPE.2024.23.1.3 DOI: https://doi.org/10.22630/ASPE.2024.23.1.3

Utouh, H.M.L, Mchukwa, E.W., & Tibuhinda, R.N. (2024). The Effects of Foreign Direct Investment on Economic Growth (Gross Domestic Product) in Tanzania. Economic Insights - Trends and Challenges, 13(2), 89- 100. https://doi.org/10.51865/EITC.2024.02.07 DOI: https://doi.org/10.51865/EITC.2024.02.07

Wainaina, A. (2016). Major constraints limiting maize productivity in smallholder ( SH ) farming sector of sub-Saharan Africa. Global Journal of Pests, Deseases and Crop Protection, 4(4), 197-205.

Xiong, W., & Tarnavsky, E. (2020). Better Agronomic Management Increases Climate Resilience of Maize to Drought in Tanzania. Atmosphere, 11(9), 982. https://doi.org/10.3390/atmos11090982 DOI: https://doi.org/10.3390/atmos11090982

Yassoungo, T. (2018). Factors influencing maize production in Sikasso Region of Mali. Journal of Agriculture Extension, 22(3), 31-39. https://doi.org/10.4314/jae.v22i3.4 DOI: https://doi.org/10.4314/jae.v22i3.4




How to Cite

Utouh, H. M. (2024). Factors Affecting Maize Production in Kiteto District, Manyara Region, Tanzania: Cross Sectional Design. SCIENCE MUNDI, 4(1), 52–62. https://doi.org/10.51867/scimundi.4.1.5