Correlation between Exposure to Domestic Violence and the Academic Performance of Pupils in Kenyan Public Primary Schools


  • Peris Waithira Njoroge PhD Candidate (Educational Psychology), Maasai Mara University, Kenya
  • Mwaura Kimani School of Education, Maasai Mara University, Kenya
  • Hilda Nyougo Omae School of Education, Meru University of Science and Technology, Kenya



Academic Performance, Domestic Violence, Informal Settlements, Primary Schools, Pupils


Domestic violence poses a significant risk to pupils' academic performance, particularly in informal settlements, jeopardizing their chances of attaining their academic potential and becoming useful members of the community.  This study investigates the relationship between exposure to domestic violence and academic performance among pupils in public primary schools in informal settlements, Nairobi County, Kenya. The research, guided by Family Stress Theory, employed a descriptive design and targeted a population of 61,034 pupils. The sample size of 380 participants was determined using Krejcie and Morgan's formula. Purposive sampling was used to select 13 public primary schools in the informal settlements and pupils in classes 4, 5, and 6. Research instruments included Violence Exposure Scale for Children-Revised to measure domestic violence exposure and an assessment record sheet for academic performance. A pilot study with 42 pupils was conducted to ensure instrument validity and reliability, yielding a reliable coefficient of α=0.785 for the Exposure to Domestic Violence Scale. Data collection involved selecting participants, distributing questionnaires while ensuring data confidentiality. Data was coded, entered, and cleaned for analysis using IBM SPSS version 23. Descriptive statistics, such as percentages and frequencies, analyzed demographic data. Inferential statistics, including Pearson's correlation, were employed to examine the relationships between independent and dependent variables. Findings revealed a statistically significant, albeit weak, negative association between domestic violence exposure and academic performance. Pupils with higher exposure exhibited lower academic performance, highlighting the disruptive impact of domestic violence. The study recommends proactive measures, such as parental sensitization programs, to mitigate domestic violence's impact on academic performance, fostering an environment that supports academic success and overall well-being for pupils.


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How to Cite

Njoroge, P. W., Kimani, M., & Omae, H. N. (2023). Correlation between Exposure to Domestic Violence and the Academic Performance of Pupils in Kenyan Public Primary Schools. SCIENCE MUNDI, 3(1), 74–84.