Science Mundi https://sciencemundi.net/ <p>Science Mundi is a multidisciplinary peer-reviewed journal. The journal provides prompt publication of research articles from diverse social, pure, and applied science fields. All submitted works are subjected to double-blind peer review and promptly published on an open-source basis if they meet the requisite criterion. </p> Science Mundi en-US Science Mundi 2788-5844 Student Retention in Secondary Schools of Seventh-day Adventist Church in East Kenya Union Conference https://sciencemundi.net/article/view/26 <p><em>The study assessed students’ retention in secondary schools of the SDA Church in EKUC. It employed a concurrent mixed methods research design and adopted an exploratory approach using a descriptive survey. The subjects of the study included students, principals, the Conferences/Field Education Directors and the Board of Management (BoM) chairpersons. Based on expectancy theory of motivation, the study adopted the concurrent mixed methods research design. The target population was the twenty Seventh-day Adventist Church maintained Secondary Schools in EKUC. The unit of analysis was eleven secondary school principals, five education directors and, eleven chairpersons of the school boards of management (BOM) and 335 students. Cluster sampling technique was used to get the samples. The target population was divided into five clusters (principals, students, education directors and, board chairpersons). Samples were obtained from each of these clusters. The</em> instruments<em> used for data collection were questionnaires for students. Interview schedules were organized for education directors, the school BoM chairpersons and the principals for triangulation. Observation schedule was also organized. This targeted the school infrastructure and generally all what goes on in the school. The school learning facilities and the behavior of teachers in school was also captured here. The other instrument used was the tool for document analysis to collect data for 8 years. Students (335) were required to fill the provided questionnaire, but the eleven principals, five education directions and eleven BoM chairpersons were subjected to interviews. Documentary analysis method was used to get information on KCSE performance for the same period of eight years. The data collected was analyzed using descriptive statistics such as frequencies, percentages, means and standard deviations.&nbsp; Documentary analysis was done on records about teacher retention.&nbsp; Content analysis was done on responses from interviews and in open-ended questions. The findings show that there were high numbers of students in Form 2 and 3 who dropped within the year and those who joined. Students were being replaced as they dropped out in some of the years. All in all, there were high annual turnover rates.&nbsp; This could affect the learning processes as well as students’ academic performance. The study recommends the need for schools to put in place strategies for ensuring that students learning facilities were available.&nbsp; Students should also be motivated to remain in school. Bursaries and sponsorships for students from poor backgrounds should be availed. Spiritual guidance, work programs and flexible fees payment mechanisms should also be instituted so as to support children from poor background to remain in school.</em></p> Shadrack Kamundi Copyright (c) 2021 Science Mundi 2021-04-17 2021-04-17 1 1 20 30 10.51867/10.51867/scimundi.1.1.2021.26 Nexus Between Uptake of Courses and Finance Availability on Success of Expansion Strategies in Public Training Institutions: A Case Study of Kenya Medical Training College https://sciencemundi.net/article/view/29 <p><em>This study investigates the influence of uptake of courses and finance availability on the expansion strategies in public training institutions with reference to the Kenya Medical Training College. The specific objectives of the study are to: reveal the influence of uptake of courses on the success of expansion strategies in the public training institutions and; assess the influence of finances on the success of expansion strategies in the public training institutions. </em><em>This study is based on </em><em>the Ansoff Growth Matrix (AGM) and the theory of customer responsiveness.</em> <em>It </em><em>adopts the descriptive survey design. The study focuses on 2393 KMTC officers from the 73 KMTC campuses in Kenya, 42 ministries of health officials in the 42 counties that have KMTC campuses and 42 local leaders from those counties that have KMTC campuses. The total targeted study participants were thus 2477. From these, 10% (248 persons) were sampled. The study used purposive and stratified random sampling techniques to obtain the study sample. Primary data was collected using structured questionnaires and interviews. Data from questionnaires were analysed using the Statistical Package for the Social Sciences (SPSS) version 24. Descriptive statistics (frequencies, percentages, and means) were used to describe the central tendencies of the data. In addition, inferential statistics (Pearson Correlation and Multiple Regression Analysis) were also used. Data from key informants were analysed using content analysis techniques. The findings show that the two study variables influenced the success of expansion strategies at KMTC campuses. In this regard, Pearson correlation shows that there was statistical significant relationship between uptake of courses (r=.308, p&lt;0.001) and; finance availability (r=0.673, p&lt;0.001) and success of expansion strategies. These findings show that finance availability was the strongest factor that influenced the success of expansion strategies. As such, the success of expansion strategies can only be successful if the college put in place strategies aimed at ensuring that there were sufficient finances. This could go on to enhance the development of facilities and equipping them. An effort aimed at ensuring that new campuses had a high intake of students could also contribute to the level of success of expansion strategies at KMTC. High intakes could enhance the revenue generation, further enhancing the funding and success of new KMTC campuses.</em></p> Paul Chandoo Musango Daniel K. Kimwetich Copyright (c) 2021 Science Mundi 2021-04-17 2021-04-17 1 1 66 80 10.51867/10.51867/scimundi.1.1.2021.29 Adopting Meritocracy among the Youth for International Development in Developing Countries https://sciencemundi.net/article/view/37 <p><em>The aim of this research was to highlight how meritocracy can be adopted to tap youth as a resource for development in Developing countries. This meritocratic perspective is based on the premise that one's talents are primarily derived from their inherent qualities (e.g., personality and general intelligence). As a result, a meritocratic environment is described as one that recognizes an individual's abilities and provides them with the environment and, opportunities they need to excel in their endeavors. This qualitative analysis is an integrative literature review based on the desk study of secondary data. The findings show that meritocracy is achieved through, talent-based careers, educational opportunities tailored to natural aptitude, and achievement as the foundation for social reward system in the society. The practice of meritocracy may be harnessed to build up an effective work culture and promote economic growth with social development. Nevertheless, what we can conclude from this study is that non-meritocratic culture currently practiced in Developing countries, especially neopatrimonialism, is considered to play an important role in hindering youth access to opportunities. Therefore, meritocracy is a strategy that policy makers should consider adopting if they want to succeed at jumpstarting economic development based on a capitalist market model.</em></p> Margaret Murage Copyright (c) 2021 Science Mundi 2021-05-24 2021-05-24 1 1 105 109 10.51867/10.51867/scimundi.1.1.2021.37 Alcohol and Drug Abuse Induced Risk Taking Behaviour among Secondary School Students in Kajiado North Sub-County, Kajiado County, Kenya https://sciencemundi.net/article/view/24 <p><em>This article is on </em><em>alcohol and drug abuse as predictors of risk taking behaviour among secondary school students in Kajiado North Sub-County. The area has numerous drug and alcohol ecological factors that could influence the behaviour of adolescents. Since the area is home to a lot of the working population of the adjacent Nairobi City County, people from various backgrounds have immigrated there. As such, the societal values held by the inhabitants of the area are not easy to define. In this context, adolescents are prone to indulge in drug and alcohol abuse that could impact their lives negatively. This is particulars o since it alcohol and drug abuse encourages unprotected sex among students and by extension abortion, gang behaviour as students look for money to sustain the risky behaviours among others. The arguments of this article are guided by the ecological Systems Theory. </em><em>Information is obtained from a descriptive survey of </em><em>267 students and 15 principals that was I undertook in 2017. The sample was obtained using stratified proportionate sampling and total population sampling techniques in the </em><em>15 public secondary schools in Kajiado North Sub-County. Data from students was collected using questionnaires while the principals were interviewed. The findings show that alcohol and drug abuse risk-taking behaviour in adolescents are higher in the wake of poor family stability, negative peer influence, breakdown of societal values and weak government measures. As such, it is recommended that it is important to ensure that cohesiveness in the families is encouraged so as to reduce alcohol and drug abuse behaviours among students. Teachers should also be at the forefront for checking alcohol and drug abuse in schools so as to protect the spread of risky taking behaviours among peers. Members of the society who sell alcohol to students should be identified and punished as per the existing law. The government should strengthen its programs (in schools and in the mass media) to guide students on the dangers associated with alcohol and drug abuse among students. This article is organized into Introduction, Literature Review and discussions.</em></p> David Nzioka Joseph Theuri Emma Mueni Mutisya Copyright (c) 2021 Science Mundi 2021-04-16 2021-04-16 1 1 1 6 10.51867/10.51867/scimundi.1.1.2021.24 Determinants of Teacher and Student Retention in Secondary Schools of Seventh-day Adventist Church in East Kenya union Conference https://sciencemundi.net/article/view/27 <p><em>The study aimed at establishing the factors which influence the low retention of teachers and students in secondary schools of the SDA Church in EKUC. It employed a concurrent mixed methods research design and adopted an exploratory approach using a descriptive survey. This was to investigate the factors which influenced the retention of teachers and students in EKUC schools. Out of the twenty secondary schools in the Union, the researcher targeted eleven which sat for the national exams since 2008. The subjects of the study included teachers, students, principals, the Conferences/Field Education Directors and the BoM chairpersons. The study was based on the expectancy theory of motivation which states that certain behaviour leads to the expected outcome. In the research, certain behaviours by the relevant authorities should lead to high retention of students and teachers. Teachers should be availed bursary funds for career advancement, given incentives for motivation and be made to believe that they are appreciated by the school administration. The administration should assist the needy students to get financial support. The findings showed that two independent variables (school administration and motivation strategies) commonly contributed to the retention of teachers and students. School administration was the most common factor which contributed to low retention, among the two groups. It was found important to carry out exhaustive studies on each of the study variables for comparative purposes in public schools and undertake exploratory and in-depth studies on the same. </em></p> Shadrack Kamundi Copyright (c) 2021 Science Mundi 2021-04-17 2021-04-17 1 1 31 58 10.51867/10.51867/scimundi.1.1.2021.27 Devolution and Politics as Predictors of Expansion Strategies in Public Training Institutions: A Case Study of Kenya Medical Training College https://sciencemundi.net/article/view/30 <p><em>This study investigates the influence of devolution and politics on the expansion strategies in public training institutions with reference to the Kenya Medical Training College. The specific objectives of the study are to: establish the influence of devolution of health services on the success of expansion strategies in the public training institutions and; determine the influence of politics on the success of expansion strategies in the public training institutions. </em><em>This study is based on </em><em>the contingency theory.</em> <em>It </em><em>adopts the descriptive survey design. The study focuses on 2393 KMTC officers from the 73 KMTC campuses in Kenya, 42 ministries of health officials in the 42 counties that have KMTC campuses, and 42 local leaders from those counties that have KMTC campuses. The total targeted study participants were thus 2477. From these, 10% (248 persons) were sampled. The study used purposive and stratified random sampling techniques to obtain the study sample. Primary data was collected using structured questionnaires and interviews. Data from questionnaires were analysed using the Statistical Package for the Social Sciences (SPSS) version 24. Descriptive statistics (frequencies, percentages, and means) were used to describe the central tendencies of the data. In addition, inferential statistics (Pearson Correlation and Multiple Regression Analysis) were also used.&nbsp; Data from key informants were analysed using content analysis techniques. The findings show that the two study variables influenced the uptake of expansion strategies at KMTC campuses. In this regard, Pearson correlation shows that there was statistical significant relationship between devolution of health services (r=0.322, p&lt;0.001) and; politics (r=0.478, p&lt;0.001) and success of expansion strategies. These findings show that politics was the strongest factor influencing the success of expansion strategies followed by devolution of health services. As such, avoiding the negative influences of the devolution of health services and politics can enhance the success of expansion strategies at KMTC. In this regard, efforts aimed at reducing political patronage as well as interferences of devolved governments in the running of KMTC campuses would enhance the performance of new campuses. </em></p> Paul Chandoo Musango Daniel K. Kimwetich Copyright (c) 2021 Science Mundi 2021-04-17 2021-04-17 1 1 81 95 10.51867/10.51867/scimundi.1.1.2021.30 The Effects of Availability of Resources on the Implementation of Turnaround Strategy at New Kenya Co-operative Creameries Limited https://sciencemundi.net/article/view/39 <p><em>This study investigates the effect of resources on the implementation of turnaround strategy at New Kenya Co-operative Creameries Ltd (NKCC). This study was guided by the stage and action theory with more emphasizes being given to stage theory. &nbsp;The study adopted a case study research strategy. Data was collected using questionnaires from 43 managers and management employees of New KCC selected from three branches (Nairobi, Limuru and Thika). The data was analysed quantitatively and the findings presented in frequency distribution tables and bar graphs. From the findings, the researcher found out that resources affected the implementation of turnaround strategies. The most important factors related to resources were inadequate training and instruction given to lower level employees; ineffective coordination of implementation activities; low competence, coordination, and commitment among human resources; inadequate leadership and direction provided by departmental manager; delays due to additional costs and instabilities during the process of change and; lack of enough raw material (resources). Interestingly, this study found out that lack of physical resources may not translate to effective implementation of turnaround strategies. There may be sufficient machinery and human resources in the various departments, however, there has to be competent managers to ensure efficient utilize of such resources. In light, it was deduced that there is need to align the physical resources that an organization has with competent human resources so as to effectively realize effective implementation of turnaround strategies. This study recommends that the most important resources to be acquired are competent personnel. This is particularly so since, the various aspects of the implementation of turnaround strategies need such personnel. As such, they should be well trained and suitable to carry out the various tasks needed to ensure that the strategies under their docket are well implemented. NKCC should also ensure that there is modern equipment and funds to facilitate the change management. Budgets should be reviewed regularly so as to ensure presence of adequate resources to sustain the implementation of turnaround strategies.</em></p> Sabina Mueni Musango Copyright (c) 2021 Science Mundi 2021-06-12 2021-06-12 1 1 110 118 10.51867/10.51867/scimundi.1.1.2021.39 Teacher Retention in Secondary Schools of Seventh-day Adventist Church in East Kenya Union Conference https://sciencemundi.net/article/view/25 <p>The study aimed at examining retention of teachers in secondary schools of the Seventh-Day Adventist (SDA) Church in East Kenya Union Conference (EKUC). It employed a concurrent mixed methods research design and adopted an exploratory approach using a descriptive survey. Out of the twenty secondary schools in the Union, the researcher targeted eleven which sat for the national exams since 2008. The subjects of the study included teachers, principals, the Conferences/Field Education Directors and the BoM chairpersons. The instruments used for data collection were questionnaires for teachers. Interview schedules were organized for education directors, the school BoM chairpersons, the principals and teachers for triangulation. Observation schedule was also organized. This targeted the school infrastructure and generally all what goes on in the school. The school learning facilities and the behavior of teachers in school was also captured here. The other instrument used was the tool for document analysis to collect data for 8 years. Ninety-eight (98) teachers were required to fill the provided questionnaire, but the eleven principals, five education directions and eleven Boards of Management (BoM ) chairpersons were subjected to interviews. Three teachers per school were also interviewed for triangulation purpose. Observations were also done during the visits in schools. Documentary analysis method was also used to gather information on the turnover trends of teachers for eight years. The data collected was analyzed using descriptive statistics such as frequencies, percentages, means and standard deviations. Documentary analysis was done on records about teacher retention. Content analysis was done on responses from interviews and in open-ended questions to identify the emerging themes. The findings show that more teachers were leaving schools than those being employed in most of the years. Generally, it is evident that some teachers left church employment. The turnover was experienced annually. However, teachers intended to remain in the school as long as the administration was cooperative, understanding, appreciative, recognizes their efforts, was caring and was ready to treat them with dignity. The study recommends that the school administration should be cooperative to teachers, by treating them with dignity and appreciating their efforts. There should be stringent measures for motivating teachers, ensuring that they had access to housing and transport and that they were adequately remunerated.</p> Shadrack Kamundi Copyright (c) 2021 Science Mundi 2021-04-17 2021-04-17 1 1 7 19 10.51867/10.51867/scimundi.1.1.2021.25 Effects of PTSD Associated Alcohol Abuse on Social Economic Status among Youth in Kenya: A Systematic Review https://sciencemundi.net/article/view/28 <p>The issue of alcohol abuse in Kenya is deeply rooted and continues to affect the well-being of youthful population. A study conducted in 2018, an estimated 45-50% alcohol-abusing youth in Kiambu County had post-traumatic stress disorder. The main purpose of this paper is to review and synthesize existing literature articles on the effects of PTSD associated Alcohol Abuse in Kenya’s context. The review shows that PSTD related to alcohol abuse, though not well studied in Kenya is a real challenge facing the youth. It affects their learning processes and their transition to colleges and other institutions of higher learning. Alcohol abuse also affects employment prospects for the youth and leads to impoverishment. It also challenges the productivity and entrepreneurial capacities of these youth; leading to further impoverishment and reduced socioeconomic prospects. On the basis of these findings, it is pertinent to come up with psychosocial support mechanisms for alcohol abusers suffering from PSTD. The government should put in place funding strategies for the rehabilitation of youth suffering from PSTD. Also, government empowerment programmes in Kenya should ensure that the youth with PSTD related alcohol abuse can access funding to enhance their socioeconomic status.</p> David Nzioka Joseph Theuri Copyright (c) 2021 Science Mundi 2021-04-17 2021-04-17 1 1 59 65 10.51867/10.51867/scimundi.1.1.2021.28 Financial Inclusion and Poverty Alleviation in Kenya: Effects of Mobile Loan Interest Rates on the Financial Performance of SMEs in Urban Informal Settlements https://sciencemundi.net/article/view/32 <p><em>The aim of this study is to assess the effect of interest rates on the financial performance of SMEs in urban informal settlements in Kenya. This study adopts the descriptive survey design. Data were collected from 120 SMEs in the 6 wards of Mathare Sub-County. Data was collected using semi-structured questionnaires. It was analysed using descriptive and inferential statistics. The findings show that low-interest rates could influence the propensity of SMEs to apply for these loans. The ability to pay mobile loans without problems due to low interest rates enhanced the performance of the respondents’ businesses. This goes on to contribute to poverty alleviation in urban informal settlements through enhanced access to capital; one of the goals of the world bank. This has further ripple effects since it can contribute to income diversification for the inhabitants of poor urban areas. The following recommendations were made. The government should also reduce interest rates to lower the cost of mobile phone interests as well as the interest rates of other loan products. Mobile loan lenders should also ensure that their loan products are affordable for the urban poor.</em></p> Margaret Murage Copyright (c) 2021 Science Mundi 2021-04-30 2021-04-30 1 1 96 104 10.51867/10.51867/scimundi.1.1.2021.32